Posts with «usb» label

Using A TeensyLC To Emulate The XBOX 360 Controller

After the release of Mortal Kombat X, [Zachery’s] gaming group wanted to branch out into the fighter genre. They quickly learned that in order to maximize their experience, they would need a better controller than a standard gamepad. A keyboard wasn’t going to cut it either. They wanted a fight stick. These are large controllers that look very much like arcade fighting controls and include a joystick and large buttons. [Zachery’s] group decided to build their own fight stick for use with a PC.

[Zachery] based his build around the TeensyLC, which is a 32 bit development board with an ARM processor. It’s also compatible with Arduino. The original version of his project setup the controller as a HID, essentially emulating a keyboard. This worked for a while until they ran into compatibility issues with some games. [Zachery] learned that his controller was compatible with DirectInput, which has been deprecated. The new thing is Xinput, and it was going to require more work.

Using Xinput meant that [Zachery] could no longer use the generic Microsoft HID driver. Rather than write his own drivers, he decided to emulate the XBOX 360 controller. When the fight stick is plugged into the computer, it shows up as an XBOX 360 controller and Windows easily installs the pre-built driver. To perform the emulation, [Zachery] first had to set the VID and PID of the device to be identical to the XBOX controller. This is what allows the Microsoft driver to recognize the device.

Next, the device descriptor and configuration descriptor had to be added to the Teensy’s firmware. The device descriptor includes information such as USB version, device class, protocol, etc. The configuration descriptor includes additional information about the device configuration. [Zachery] used Microsoft Message Analyzer to pull the configuration descriptor from a real XBOX 360 controller, then used the same data in his own custom controller.

[Zachery] programmed the TeensyLC using the Arduino IDE. He ran into some trouble here because the IDE did not include the correct device type for an Xinput device. [Zachery] had to edit the boards.txt file and add three lines of code in order to add a new hardware device to the IDE’s menu. Several other files also had to be modified to make sure the compiler knew what an Xinput device type was.  With all of that out of the way, [Zachery] was finally able to write the code for his controller.


Filed under: Arduino Hacks, ARM
Hack a Day 15 Jul 03:00

CH376S USB Read/Write module

Have you ever wondered if there was a way to store and retrieve data from a USB stick with an Arduino UNO? Most people choose SD cards to store their project data, but you may be surprised there IS a way!
IC Station have a nice little module which allows you store and retrieve your Arduino (or other MCU) project data to a USB stick.
 
I am not too sure why USB storage is not widely used in Arduino projects? These modules are not expensive, they have been around for quite a while, and are relatively simple to use. You do not need any libraries to get them to work, however, I must say that documentation for this module is not that easy to find. This site and this document proved to be very useful in my endevour to get this module working, and I hope my tutorial below will help you get started and bridge some of the information gaps.
 
The "CH376S USB read/write module" has a CH376S chip onboard which does most of the hard work for you. All you have to do is send the module some commands from the Arduino and the CH376S chip will do the rest. You can communicate with the module in three different ways:

  • Parallel communication
  • SPI communication
  • and Serial (UART) communication.

This project will show you the connections and code for the Serial (UART) communication method only.


 

Parts Required:

Remove the Jumper

When the CH376S USB module arrives in it's package, it will have a jumper between the TXD pin and GND. You will need to remove this jumper to make the necessary connections between the Arduino UNO and the CH376S USB module.


 

Fritzing Sketch

Please note, that the Arduino Sketch makes use of the Arduino UNO's onboard LED on digital pin 13. The Fritzing sketch below shows an LED + 300 ohm resistor on a breadboard. This is optional. The LED is not a necessary component of CH376S module communication.

Also be aware that the CH376S USB module has an onboard LED just above the TXD and GND pins near the USB port. This LED will only turn on providing the CH376S module is in USB mode AND a USB device has been inserted into the USB port. Both conditions must be met before the module's onboard LED will illuminate. You will not see the LED turn on just by powering the board.
 
The wire diagram below is the correct setup for Serial communication between an Arduino UNO and the CH376S module. If you wish to use SPI or Parallel communication, you will need to refer to the datasheet.


 
 

Arduino Sketch


 
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/* ===============================================================
      Project: CH376S USB Read/Write Module testing ground
       Author: Scott C
      Created: 1st May 2015
  Arduino IDE: 1.6.2
      Website: http://arduinobasics.blogspot.com/p/arduino-basics-projects-page.html
  Description: This project will allow you to perform many of the functions available on the CH376S module.
               Checking connection to the module, putting the module into USB mode, resetting the module, 
               reading, writing, appending text to files on the USB stick. This is very useful alternative to
               SD card modules, plus it doesn't need any libraries.
================================================================== */

#include <SoftwareSerial.h>

byte computerByte; //used to store data coming from the computer
byte USB_Byte; //used to store data coming from the USB stick
int LED = 13; //the LED is connected to digital pin 13
int timeOut = 2000; //TimeOut is 2 seconds. This is the amount of time you wish to wait for a response from the CH376S module.
String wrData = "What is the meaning of life ?"; //We will write this data to a newly created file.
String wrData2 = "42"; //We will append this data to an already existing file.

SoftwareSerial USB(10, 11); // Digital pin 10 on Arduino (RX) connects to TXD on the CH376S module
                                                      // Digital pin 11 on Arduino (TX) connects to RXD on the CH376S module
                                                      // GND on Arduino to GND on CH376S module
                                                      // 5V on Arduino to 5V on CH376S module
//==============================================================================================================================================
void setup() {
  Serial.begin(9600); // Setup serial communication with the computer (using a baud rate of 9600 on serial monitor)
  USB.begin(9600); // Setup serial communication with the CH376S module (using the default baud rate of 9600)
  pinMode(LED,OUTPUT); // Define digital pin 13 as an OUTPUT pin - so that we can use it with an LED
  digitalWrite(LED,LOW); // Turn off the LED
}

//================================================================================================================================================
void loop() {
  if(Serial.available()){
    computerByte = Serial.read(); //read any incoming bytes from the Serial monitor, and store this byte in the variable called computerByte
    if(computerByte==49){ //1 //If you send the number 1 from the serial monitor, the arduino will read it as digital number 49. Google "ascii table" for more info.
      printCommandHeader("COMMAND1: CHECK CONNECTION");
      checkConnection(0x01);                           // Check for successful connection and communication with the CH376S module.
    } 
    if(computerByte==50){ //2
     printCommandHeader("COMMAND2: set_USB_Mode");
      set_USB_Mode(0x06);                              // Code used to enable read/write communication and monitoring of the USB stick
    }
    if(computerByte==51){ //3
      printCommandHeader("COMMAND3: resetALL");
      resetALL();                                      // Reset the USB device
    }
    if(computerByte==52){ //4
      printCommandHeader("COMMAND4: Create and Write to File : TEST4.TXT");
      writeFile("TEST4.TXT", wrData); // Create a file called TEST4.TXT and then Write the contents of wrData to this file
    }
    if(computerByte==53){ //5
      printCommandHeader("COMMAND5: Read File: TEST4.TXT");
      readFile("TEST4.TXT"); // Read the contents of this file on the USB disk, and display contents in the Serial Monitor
    }
    if(computerByte==54){ //6
      printCommandHeader("COMMAND6: Append data to file: TEST4.TXT");
      appendFile("TEST4.TXT", wrData2); // Append data to the end of the file.
    }
    if(computerByte==55){ //7
      printCommandHeader("COMMAND7: Delete File: TEST4.TXT");
      fileDelete("TEST4.TXT"); // Delete the file named TEST4.TXT
    }
    if(computerByte==56){ //8
      printCommandHeader("COMMAND8: Read File: TEST2.TXT");
      readFile("TEST2.TXT"); // Read the contents of the TEST2.TXT file on the USB disk, and display contents in the Serial Monitor
    }
    if(computerByte==57){ //9
      printCommandHeader("COMMAND9: Read File: TEST3.TXT");
      readFile("TEST3.TXT"); // Read the contents of the TEST3.TXT file on the USB disk, and display contents in the Serial Monitor
    }
  }
  
  if(USB.available()){ // This is here to capture any unexpected data transmitted by the CH376S module
    Serial.print("CH376S has just sent this code:");
    Serial.println(USB.read(), HEX);
  }
}

//END OF LOOP FUNCTION ========================================================================================================================================

//print Command header
void printCommandHeader(String header){
   Serial.println("======================");
   Serial.println("");
   Serial.println(header);
   Serial.println("----------------------");
}

//checkConnection==================================================================================
//This function is used to check for successful communication with the CH376S module. This is not dependant of the presence of a USB stick.
//Send any value between 0 to 255, and the CH376S module will return a number = 255 - value. 
void checkConnection(byte value){
  USB.write(0x57);
  USB.write(0xAB);
  USB.write(0x06);
  USB.write(value);
  
  if(waitForResponse("checking connection")){ //wait for a response from the CH376S. If CH376S responds, it will be true. If it times out, it will be false.
    if(getResponseFromUSB()==(255-value)){
       Serial.println(">Connection to CH376S was successful.");
       blinkLED();                               //blink the LED for 1 second if the connection was successful
    } else {
      Serial.print(">Connection to CH376S - FAILED.");
    }
  }
}

//set_USB_Mode=====================================================================================
//Make sure that the USB is inserted when using 0x06 as the value in this specific code sequence
void set_USB_Mode (byte value){
  USB.write(0x57);
  USB.write(0xAB);
  USB.write(0x15);
  USB.write(value);
  
  delay(20);
  
  if(USB.available()){
    USB_Byte=USB.read();
    //Check to see if the command has been successfully transmitted and acknowledged.
    if(USB_Byte==0x51){ // If true - the CH376S has acknowledged the command.
        Serial.println("set_USB_Mode command acknowledged"); //The CH376S will now check and monitor the USB port
        USB_Byte = USB.read();
        
        //Check to see if the USB stick is connected or not.
        if(USB_Byte==0x15){ // If true - there is a USB stick connected
          Serial.println("USB is present");
          blinkLED();                                     // If the process was successful, then turn the LED on for 1 second
        } else {
          Serial.print("USB Not present. Error code:"); // If the USB is not connected - it should return an Error code = FFH
          Serial.print(USB_Byte, HEX);
          Serial.println("H");
        }
        
    } else {
        Serial.print("CH3765 error! Error code:");
        Serial.print(USB_Byte, HEX);
        Serial.println("H");
    }   
  }
  delay(20);
}

//resetALL=========================================================================================
//This will perform a hardware reset of the CH376S module - which usually takes about 35 msecs =====
void resetALL(){
    USB.write(0x57);
    USB.write(0xAB);
    USB.write(0x05);
    Serial.println("The CH376S module has been reset !");
    delay(200);
}

//readFile=====================================================================================
//This will send a series of commands to read data from a specific file (defined by fileName)
void readFile(String fileName){
  resetALL();                     //Reset the module
  set_USB_Mode(0x06);             //Set to USB Mode
  diskConnectionStatus();         //Check that communication with the USB device is possible
  USBdiskMount();                 //Prepare the USB for reading/writing - you need to mount the USB disk for proper read/write operations.
  setFileName(fileName);          //Set File name
  fileOpen();                     //Open the file for reading
  int fs = getFileSize(); //Get the size of the file
  fileRead();                     //***** Send the command to read the file ***
  fileClose(0x00);                //Close the file
}

//writeFile========================================================================================
//is used to create a new file and then write data to that file. "fileName" is a variable used to hold the name of the file (e.g TEST.TXT). "data" should not be greater than 255 bytes long. 
void writeFile(String fileName, String data){
  resetALL();                     //Reset the module
  set_USB_Mode(0x06);             //Set to USB Mode
  diskConnectionStatus();         //Check that communication with the USB device is possible
  USBdiskMount();                 //Prepare the USB for reading/writing - you need to mount the USB disk for proper read/write operations.
  setFileName(fileName);          //Set File name
  if(fileCreate()){ //Try to create a new file. If file creation is successful
    fileWrite(data);              //write data to the file.
  } else {
    Serial.println("File could not be created, or it already exists");
  }
  fileClose(0x01);
}

//appendFile()====================================================================================
//is used to write data to the end of the file, without erasing the contents of the file.
void appendFile(String fileName, String data){
    resetALL();                     //Reset the module
    set_USB_Mode(0x06);             //Set to USB Mode
    diskConnectionStatus();         //Check that communication with the USB device is possible
    USBdiskMount();                 //Prepare the USB for reading/writing - you need to mount the USB disk for proper read/write operations.
    setFileName(fileName);          //Set File name
    fileOpen();                     //Open the file
    filePointer(false); //filePointer(false) is to set the pointer at the end of the file. filePointer(true) will set the pointer to the beginning.
    fileWrite(data);                //Write data to the end of the file
    fileClose(0x01);                //Close the file using 0x01 - which means to update the size of the file on close.
}
  
//setFileName======================================================================================
//This sets the name of the file to work with
void setFileName(String fileName){
  Serial.print("Setting filename to:");
  Serial.println(fileName);
  USB.write(0x57);
  USB.write(0xAB);
  USB.write(0x2F);
  USB.write(0x2F); // Every filename must have this byte to indicate the start of the file name.
  USB.print(fileName); // "fileName" is a variable that holds the name of the file. eg. TEST.TXT
  USB.write((byte)0x00); // you need to cast as a byte - otherwise it will not compile. The null byte indicates the end of the file name.
  delay(20);
}

//diskConnectionStatus================================================================================
//Check the disk connection status
void diskConnectionStatus(){
  Serial.println("Checking USB disk connection status");
  USB.write(0x57);
  USB.write(0xAB);
  USB.write(0x30);

  if(waitForResponse("Connecting to USB disk")){ //wait for a response from the CH376S. If CH376S responds, it will be true. If it times out, it will be false.
    if(getResponseFromUSB()==0x14){ //CH376S will send 0x14 if this command was successful
       Serial.println(">Connection to USB OK");
    } else {
      Serial.print(">Connection to USB - FAILED.");
    }
  }
}

//USBdiskMount========================================================================================
//initialise the USB disk and check that it is ready - this process is required if you want to find the manufacturing information of the USB disk
void USBdiskMount(){
  Serial.println("Mounting USB disk");
  USB.write(0x57);
  USB.write(0xAB);
  USB.write(0x31);

  if(waitForResponse("mounting USB disk")){ //wait for a response from the CH376S. If CH376S responds, it will be true. If it times out, it will be false.
    if(getResponseFromUSB()==0x14){ //CH376S will send 0x14 if this command was successful
       Serial.println(">USB Mounted - OK");
    } else {
      Serial.print(">Failed to Mount USB disk.");
    }
  }
}

//fileOpen========================================================================================
//opens the file for reading or writing
void fileOpen(){
  Serial.println("Opening file.");
  USB.write(0x57);
  USB.write(0xAB);
  USB.write(0x32);
  if(waitForResponse("file Open")){ //wait for a response from the CH376S. If CH376S responds, it will be true. If it times out, it will be false.
    if(getResponseFromUSB()==0x14){ //CH376S will send 0x14 if this command was successful
       Serial.println(">File opened successfully.");
    } else {
      Serial.print(">Failed to open file.");
    }
  }
}

//setByteRead=====================================================================================
//This function is required if you want to read data from the file. 
boolean setByteRead(byte numBytes){
  boolean bytesToRead=false;
  int timeCounter = 0;
  USB.write(0x57);
  USB.write(0xAB);
  USB.write(0x3A);
  USB.write((byte)numBytes); //tells the CH376S how many bytes to read at a time
  USB.write((byte)0x00);
  if(waitForResponse("setByteRead")){ //wait for a response from the CH376S. If CH376S responds, it will be true. If it times out, it will be false.
    if(getResponseFromUSB()==0x1D){ //read the CH376S message. If equal to 0x1D, data is present, so return true. Will return 0x14 if no data is present.
      bytesToRead=true;
    }
  }
  return(bytesToRead);


//getFileSize()===================================================================================
//writes the file size to the serial Monitor.
int getFileSize(){
  int fileSize=0;
  Serial.println("Getting File Size");
  USB.write(0x57);
  USB.write(0xAB);
  USB.write(0x0C);
  USB.write(0x68);
  delay(100);
  Serial.print("FileSize =");
  if(USB.available()){
    fileSize = fileSize + USB.read();
  } 
  if(USB.available()){
    fileSize = fileSize + (USB.read()*255);
  } 
  if(USB.available()){
    fileSize = fileSize + (USB.read()*255*255);
  } 
  if(USB.available()){
    fileSize = fileSize + (USB.read()*255*255*255);
  }     
  Serial.println(fileSize);
  delay(10);
  return(fileSize);
}


//fileRead========================================================================================
//read the contents of the file
void fileRead(){
  Serial.println("Reading file:");
  byte firstByte = 0x00; //Variable to hold the firstByte from every transmission. Can be used as a checkSum if required.
  byte numBytes = 0x40; //The maximum value is 0x40 = 64 bytes
 
  while(setByteRead(numBytes)){ //This tells the CH376S module how many bytes to read on the next reading step. In this example, we will read 0x10 bytes at a time. Returns true if there are bytes to read, false if there are no more bytes to read.
    USB.write(0x57);
    USB.write(0xAB);
    USB.write(0x27); //Command to read ALL of the bytes (allocated by setByteRead(x))
    if(waitForResponse("reading data")){ //Wait for the CH376S module to return data. TimeOut will return false. If data is being transmitted, it will return true.
        firstByte=USB.read(); //Read the first byte
        while(USB.available()){
          Serial.write(USB.read()); //Send the data from the USB disk to the Serial monitor
          delay(1); //This delay is necessary for successful Serial transmission
        }
    }
    if<!continueRead()){><span>//prepares the module for further reading. If false, stop reading.</span><br />      <span>break</span>; <span>//You need the continueRead() method if the data to be read from the USB device is greater than numBytes.</span><br />    }<br />  }<br />  <span><b>Serial</b></span>.<span>println</span>();<br />  <span><b>Serial</b></span>.<span>println</span>(<span>"NO MORE DATA"</span>);<br />}<br /><br /><span>//fileWrite=======================================================================================</span><br /><span>//are the commands used to write to the file</span><br /><span>void</span> fileWrite(<span>String</span> data){<br />  <span><b>Serial</b></span>.<span>println</span>(<span>"Writing to file:"</span>);<br />  <span>byte</span> dataLength = (<span>byte</span>) data.<span>length</span>(); <span>// This variable holds the length of the data to be written (in bytes)</span><br />  <span><b>Serial</b></span>.<span>println</span>(data);<br />  <span><b>Serial</b></span>.<span>print</span>(<span>"Data Length:"</span>);<br />  <span><b>Serial</b></span>.<span>println</span>(dataLength);<br />  <span>delay</span>(100);<br />  <span>// This set of commands tells the CH376S module how many bytes to expect from the Arduino. (defined by the "dataLength" variable)</span><br />  USB.<span>write</span>(0x57);<br />  USB.<span>write</span>(0xAB);<br />  USB.<span>write</span>(0x3C);<br />  USB.<span>write</span>((<span>byte</span>) dataLength);<br />  USB.<span>write</span>((<span>byte</span>) 0x00);<br />  <span>if</span>(waitForResponse(<span>"setting data Length"</span>)){ <span>// Wait for an acknowledgement from the CH376S module before trying to send data to it</span><br />    <span>if</span>(getResponseFromUSB()==0x1E){ <span>// 0x1E indicates that the USB device is in write mode.</span><br />      USB.<span>write</span>(0x57);<br />      USB.<span>write</span>(0xAB);<br />      USB.<span>write</span>(0x2D);<br />      USB.<span>print</span>(data); <span>// write the data to the file</span><br />  <br />      <span>if</span>(waitForResponse(<span>"writing data to file"</span>)){ <span>// wait for an acknowledgement from the CH376S module</span><br />      }<br />      <span><b>Serial</b></span>.<span>print</span>(<span>"Write code (normally FF and 14): "</span>);<br />      <span><b>Serial</b></span>.<span>print</span>(USB.<span>read</span>(),<span>HEX</span>); <span>// code is normally 0xFF</span><br />      <span><b>Serial</b></span>.<span>print</span>(<span>","</span>);<br />      USB.<span>write</span>(0x57);<br />      USB.<span>write</span>(0xAB);<br />      USB.<span>write</span>(0x3D); <span>// This is used to update the file size. Not sure if this is necessary for successful writing.</span><br />      <span>if</span>(waitForResponse(<span>"updating file size"</span>)){ <span>// wait for an acknowledgement from the CH376S module</span><br />      }<br />      <span><b>Serial</b></span>.<span>println</span>(USB.<span>read</span>(),<span>HEX</span>); <span>//code is normally 0x14</span><br />    }<br />  }<br />}<br /><br /><span>//continueRead()==================================================================================</span><br /><span>//continue to read the file : I could not get this function to work as intended.</span><br /><span>boolean</span> continueRead(){<br />  <span>boolean</span> readAgain = <span>false</span>;<br />  USB.<span>write</span>(0x57);<br />  USB.<span>write</span>(0xAB);<br />  USB.<span>write</span>(0x3B);<br />  <span>if</span>(waitForResponse(<span>"continueRead"</span>)){ <span>//wait for a response from the CH376S. If CH376S responds, it will be true. If it times out, it will be false.</span><br />     <span>if</span>(getResponseFromUSB()==0x14){ <span>//CH376S will send 0x14 if this command was successful</span><br />       readAgain=<span>true</span>;<br />     }<br />  }<br />  <span>return</span>(readAgain);<br />} <br /><br /><span>//fileCreate()========================================================================================</span><br /><span>//the command sequence to create a file</span><br /><span>boolean</span> fileCreate(){<br />  <span>boolean</span> createdFile = <span>false</span>;<br />  USB.<span>write</span>(0x57);<br />  USB.<span>write</span>(0xAB);<br />  USB.<span>write</span>(0x34);<br />  <span>if</span>(waitForResponse(<span>"creating file"</span>)){ <span>//wait for a response from the CH376S. If file has been created successfully, it will return true.</span><br />     <span>if</span>(getResponseFromUSB()==0x14){ <span>//CH376S will send 0x14 if this command was successful</span><br />       createdFile=<span>true</span>;<br />     }<br />  }<br />  <span>return</span>(createdFile);<br />}<br /><br /><br /><span>//fileDelete()========================================================================================</span><br /><span>//the command sequence to delete a file</span><br /><span>void</span> fileDelete(<span>String</span> fileName){<br />  setFileName(fileName);<br />  <span>delay</span>(20);<br />  USB.<span>write</span>(0x57);<br />  USB.<span>write</span>(0xAB);<br />  USB.<span>write</span>(0x35);<br />  <span>if</span>(waitForResponse(<span>"deleting file"</span>)){ <span>//wait for a response from the CH376S. If file has been created successfully, it will return true.</span><br />     <span>if</span>(getResponseFromUSB()==0x14){ <span>//CH376S will send 0x14 if this command was successful</span><br />       <span><b>Serial</b></span>.<span>println</span>(<span>"Successfully deleted file"</span>);<br />     }<br />  }<br />}<br />  <br /><br /><span>//filePointer========================================================================================</span><br /><span>//is used to set the file pointer position. true for beginning of file, false for the end of the file.</span><br /><span>void</span> filePointer(<span>boolean</span> fileBeginning){<br />  USB.<span>write</span>(0x57);<br />  USB.<span>write</span>(0xAB);<br />  USB.<span>write</span>(0x39);<br />  <span>if</span>(fileBeginning){<br />    USB.<span>write</span>((<span>byte</span>)0x00); <span>//beginning of file</span><br />    USB.<span>write</span>((<span>byte</span>)0x00);<br />    USB.<span>write</span>((<span>byte</span>)0x00);<br />    USB.<span>write</span>((<span>byte</span>)0x00);<br />  } <span>else</span> {<br />    USB.<span>write</span>((<span>byte</span>)0xFF); <span>//end of file</span><br />    USB.<span>write</span>((<span>byte</span>)0xFF);<br />    USB.<span>write</span>((<span>byte</span>)0xFF);<br />    USB.<span>write</span>((<span>byte</span>)0xFF);<br />  }<br />  <span>if</span>(waitForResponse(<span>"setting file pointer"</span>)){ <span>//wait for a response from the CH376S. </span><br />     <span>if</span>(getResponseFromUSB()==0x14){ <span>//CH376S will send 0x14 if this command was successful</span><br />       <span><b>Serial</b></span>.<span>println</span>(<span>"Pointer successfully applied"</span>);<br />     }<br />  }<br />}<br /><br /><br /><span>//fileClose=======================================================================================</span><br /><span>//closes the file</span><br /><span>void</span> fileClose(<span>byte</span> closeCmd){<br />  <span><b>Serial</b></span>.<span>println</span>(<span>"Closing file:"</span>);<br />  USB.<span>write</span>(0x57);<br />  USB.<span>write</span>(0xAB);<br />  USB.<span>write</span>(0x36);<br />  USB.<span>write</span>((<span>byte</span>)closeCmd); <span>// closeCmd = 0x00 = close without updating file Size, 0x01 = close and update file Size</span><br /><br />  <span>if</span>(waitForResponse(<span>"closing file"</span>)){ <span>// wait for a response from the CH376S. </span><br />     <span>byte</span> resp = getResponseFromUSB();<br />     <span>if</span>(resp==0x14){ <span>// CH376S will send 0x14 if this command was successful</span><br />       <span><b>Serial</b></span>.<span>println</span>(<span>">File closed successfully."</span>);<br />     } <span>else</span> {<br />       <span><b>Serial</b></span>.<span>print</span>(<span>">Failed to close file. Error code:"</span>);<br />       <span><b>Serial</b></span>.<span>println</span>(resp, <span>HEX</span>);<br />     }  <br />  }<br />}<br /><br /><span>//waitForResponse===================================================================================</span><br /><span>//is used to wait for a response from USB. Returns true when bytes become available, false if it times out.</span><br /><span>boolean</span> waitForResponse(<span>String</span> errorMsg){<br />  <span>boolean</span> bytesAvailable = <span>true</span>;<br />  <span>int</span> counter=0;<br />  <span>while</span><!USB><span>available</span>()){ <span>//wait for CH376S to verify command</span><br />    <span>delay</span>(1);<br />    counter++;<br />    <span>if</span>(counter>timeOut){<br />      <span><b>Serial</b></span>.<span>print</span>(<span>"TimeOut waiting for response: Error while: "</span>);<br />      <span><b>Serial</b></span>.<span>println</span>(errorMsg);<br />      bytesAvailable = <span>false</span>;<br />      <span>break</span>;<br />    }<br />  }<br />  <span>delay</span>(1);<br />  <span>return</span>(bytesAvailable);<br />}<br /><br /><span>//getResponseFromUSB================================================================================</span><br /><span>//is used to get any error codes or messages from the CH376S module (in response to certain commands)</span><br /><span>byte</span> getResponseFromUSB(){<br />  <span>byte</span> response = <span>byte</span>(0x00);<br />  <span>if</span> (USB.<span>available</span>()){<br />    response = USB.<span>read</span>();<br />  }<br />  <span>return</span>(response);<br />}<br /><br /><br /><br /><span>//blinkLED==========================================================================================</span><br /><span>//Turn an LED on for 1 second</span><br /><span>void</span> blinkLED(){<br />  <span>digitalWrite</span>(LED, <span>HIGH</span>);<br />  <span>delay</span>(1000);<br />  <span>digitalWrite</span>(LED,<span>LOW</span>);<br />}<br /><br /></pre> </td> </tr> </table></div></p> <br /> <p> If you copy and paste this code directly into the Arduino IDE; you may get a warning like this when you compile the code:<br />   <br />    "Low memory available, stability problems may occur". <br />  <br /> I managed to run the sketch without any issues, however, I did experience problems with some of the methods when I had made further memory hungry modifications. If you do encounter problems, I would recommend that you eliminate any methods which you do not plan to use, and perhaps reduce the number of Serial.print statements throughout the code. However, please note that some of the methods will not work unless the module is in the correct state, so be careful which methods you delete. For example, I found that I could get some simple functionality without the "USBdiskMount()" method. However, I could not read/write data beyond a certain length without this method.<br />   <br /> Also please note, that some of the methods called within the reading and writing sequence do not need to be called every time. They can be called once in setup, while other methods within the sequence will need to be called every time. I grouped them all together for simplicity. </p> <!--separator --><img src="https://images-blogger-opensocial.googleusercontent.com/gadgets/proxy?url=http%3A%2F%2F1.bp.blogspot.com%2F-XQiwNpdqOxk%2FT_rKCzDh4nI%2FAAAAAAAAAQY%2FOfYBljhU6Lk%2Fs1600%2FSeparator.jpg&container=blogger&gadget=a&rewriteMime=image%2F*" /><br /> <p><h4>Serial Commands</h4> Have a look at the following presentation for a summary of the Serial commands used in this tutorial: <br />   <br /> <div> </div> </p> </div><p> <div> <!-- Concluding Comments --> </div> <br />  <br />  <div> <p> <!--separator --> <img src="https://images-blogger-opensocial.googleusercontent.com/gadgets/proxy?url=http%3A%2F%2F1.bp.blogspot.com%2F-XQiwNpdqOxk%2FT_rKCzDh4nI%2FAAAAAAAAAQY%2FOfYBljhU6Lk%2Fs1600%2FSeparator.jpg&container=blogger&gadget=a&rewriteMime=image%2F*" /><br /> <br /> </p> </div> </p><p> <div> If you like this page, please do me a favour and show your appreciation : <br /> <br />  <br /> Visit my <a href="https://plus.google.com/u/0/b/107402020974762902161/107402020974762902161/posts">ArduinoBasics Google + page</a>.<br /> Follow me on Twitter by looking for <a href="https://twitter.com/ArduinoBasics">ScottC @ArduinoBasics</a>.<br /> I can also be found on <a href="https://www.pinterest.com/ArduinoBasics/">Pinterest</a> and <a href="https://instagram.com/arduinobasics">Instagram</a>. <br /> Have a look at my videos on my <a href="https://www.youtube.com/user/ScottCMe/videos">YouTube channel</a>.<br /> </div> </p> <br /> <div> <p> <!--separator --> <img src="https://images-blogger-opensocial.googleusercontent.com/gadgets/proxy?url=http%3A%2F%2F1.bp.blogspot.com%2F-XQiwNpdqOxk%2FT_rKCzDh4nI%2FAAAAAAAAAQY%2FOfYBljhU6Lk%2Fs1600%2FSeparator.jpg&container=blogger&gadget=a&rewriteMime=image%2F*" /><br /> <br /> </p> </div> <p> However, if you do not have a google profile... <br />Feel free to share this page with your friends in any way you see fit. </p>

A Tool For Spying On Serial Data

[Piotr] was working on a recent Arduino project when he ran into a problem. He was having trouble getting his Arduino Pro Mini to communicate with an ESP8266 module. He needed a way to snoop on the back and forth serial communications. Since he didn’t have a specialized tool for this task, [Piotr] ended up building his own.

The setup is pretty simple. You start with a standard serial cable containing the TX, RX, DTR, and GND wires. This cable connects the Arduino to the ESP8266 WiFi module. The TX and RX lines are then tapped into. Each wire is routed to the RX pin of two different serial to USB adapters. This way, the data being sent from the Arduino shows up on one COM port and the data being transmitted from the module shows up on the other.

The next piece of the puzzle was coming up with a way to see the data more clearly. [Piotr] could have opened two serial terminals simultaneously, but this wasn’t ideal because it would be difficult to compare the timing of the data. Instead, [Piotr] spent less than an hour writing his own simple serial terminal. This one connects to two COM ports at the same time and prints the data on the same screen. The data from each COM port is displayed in a separate color to make it easy to differentiate. The schematic and source code to this project can be found on [Piotr’s] website.


Filed under: Arduino Hacks, Microcontrollers

Solar Charge Controller Improves Efficiency of Solar Panels

The simplest and easiest way to charge a battery with a solar panel is to connect the panel directly to the battery. Assuming the panel has a diode to prevent energy from flowing through it from the battery when there’s no sunlight. This is fairly common but not very efficient. [Debasish Dutta] has built a charge controller that addresses the inefficiencies of such a system though, and was able to implement maximum power point tracking using an Arduino.

Maximum power point tracking (MPPT) is a method that uses PWM and a special DC-DC converter to match the impedance of the solar panel to the battery. This means that more energy can be harvested from the panel than would otherwise be available. The circuit is placed in between the panel and the battery and regulates the output voltage of the panel so it matches the voltage on the battery more closely. [Debasish] reports that an efficiency gain of 30-40% can be made with this particular design.

This device has a few bells and whistles as well, including the ability to log data over WiFi, an LCD display to report the status of the panel, battery, and controller, and can charge USB devices. This would be a great addition to any solar installation, especially if you’ve built one into your truck.

This is [Debasish]’s second entry to The Hackaday Prize. We covered his first one a few days ago. That means only one thing: start a project and start documenting it on hackaday.io


Filed under: solar hacks, The Hackaday Prize

Arduino Synth Guitar Really Rocks

[Gr4yhound] has been rocking out on his recently completed synth guitar. The guitar was built mostly from scratch using an Arduino, some harvested drum pads, and some ribbon potentiometers. The video below shows that not only does it sound good, but [Gr4yhound] obviously knows how to play it.

The physical portion of the build consists of two main components. The body of the guitar is made from a chunk of pine that was routed out by [Gr4yhound’s] own home-made CNC. Three circles were routed out to make room for the harvested Yamaha drum pads, some wiring, and a joystick shield. The other main component is the guitar neck. This was actually a Squire Affinity Strat neck with the frets removed.

For the electronics, [Gr4yhound] has released a series of schematics on Imgur. Three SoftPot membrane potentiometers were added to the neck to simulate strings. This setup allows [Gr4yhound] to adjust the finger position after the note has already been started. This results in a sliding sound that you can’t easily emulate on a keyboard. The three drum pads act as touch sensors for each of the three strings. [Gr4yhound] is able to play each string simultaneously, forming harmonies.

The joystick shield allows [Gr4yhound] to add additional effects to the overall sound. In one of his demo videos you can see him using the joystick to add an effect. An Arduino Micro acts as the primary controller and transmits the musical notes as MIDI commands. [Gr4yhound] is using a commercial MIDI to USB converter in order to play the music on a computer. The converter also allows him to power the Arduino via USB, eliminating the need for batteries.

[Thanks Wybren]


Filed under: Arduino Hacks, musical hacks

Using HID Tricks to Drop Malicious Files

[Nikhil] has been experimenting with human interface devices (HID) in relation to security. We’ve seen in the past how HID can be exploited using inexpensive equipment. [Nikhil] has built his own simple device to drop malicious files onto target computers using HID technology.

The system runs on a Teensy 3.0. The Teensy is like a very small version of Arduino that has built-in functionality for emulating human interface devices, such as keyboards. This means that you can trick a computer into believing the Teensy is a keyboard. The computer will treat it as such, and the Teensy can enter keystrokes into the computer as though it were a human typing them. You can see how this might be a security problem.

[Nikhil’s] device uses a very simple trick to install files on a target machine. It simply opens up Powershell and runs a one-liner command. Generally, this commend will create a file based on input received from a web site controlled by the attacker. The script might download a trojan virus, or it might create a shortcut on the user’s desktop which will run a malicious script. The device can also create hot keys that will run a specific script every time the user presses that key.

Protecting from this type off attack can be difficult. Your primary option would be to strictly control USB devices, but this can be difficult to manage, especially in large organizations. Web filtering would also help in this specific case, since the attack relies on downloading files from the web. Your best bet might be to train users to not plug in any old USB device they find lying around. Regardless of the methodology, it’s important to know that this stuff is out there in the wild.


Filed under: Arduino Hacks, security hacks

A Remote for CHDK Cameras Made Possible with Arduino

[AlxDroidDev] built himself a nice remote control box for CHDK-enabled cameras. If you haven’t heard of CHDK, it’s a pretty cool software modification for some Canon cameras. CHDK adds many new features to inexpensive cameras. In this case, [AlxDroidDev] is using a feature that allows the camera shutter to be activated via USB. CHDK can be run from the SD card, so no permanent modifications need to be made to the camera.

[AlxDroidDev’s] device runs off of an ATMega328p with Arduino. It operates from a 9V battery. The circuit contains an infrared receiver and also a Bluetooth module. This allows [AlxDroidDev] to control his camera using either method. The device interfaces to the camera using a standard USB connector and cable. It contains three LEDs, red, green, and blue. Each one indicates the status of a different function.

The Arduino uses Ken Shirrif’s IR Remote library to handle the infrared remote control functions. SoftwareSerial is used to connect to the Bluetooth module. The Arduino code has built-in functionality for both Canon and Nikon infrared remote controls. To control the camera via Bluetooth, [AlxDroidDev] built a custom Android application. The app can not only control the camera’s shutter, but it can also control the level of zoom.


Filed under: Arduino Hacks

Walkman-esque Human Interface Device

Cheap keyboards never come with extra buttons, and for [Pengu MC] this was simply unacceptable. Rather than go out and buy a nice keyboard, a microcontroller was found in the parts drawer and put to work building this USB multimedia button human interface device that has the added bonus of looking like an old-school Walkman.

The functions that [Pengu MC] wants don’t require their own drivers. All of the buttons on this device are part of the USB standard for keyboards: reverse, forward, play/pause, and volume. This simplifies the software side quite a bit, but [Pengu MC] still wrote his own HID descriptors, tied all of the buttons to the microcontroller, and put it in a custom-printed enclosure.

If you’re looking to build your own similar device, the Arduino Leonardo, Micro, or Due have this functionality built in, since the USB controller is integrated on the chip with everything else. Some of the older Arduinos can be programmed to do the same thing as well! And, with any of these projects, you can emulate any keypress that is available, not just the multimedia buttons.


Filed under: Arduino Hacks

An Arduino-based ADB-to-USB adapter for NeXT keyboards

Have you ever wondered to use your old-fashioned NeXT keyboard with your current, non-ADB computer? The main issue that needs to be solved regards how to interface this ADB keyboard (standing for Apple Desktop Bus, an old protocol used in former NeXT and Apple computers) with a standard USB interface.

In this nice tutorial, Ladyada and Pt describe the approach they have used, based on an Arduino Micro board and… some luck in searching for the right information about the scancode table of the keyboard  ^^.

More information can be found here.

[Via: Adafruit Learning System]

 

Arduino Blog 10 Jan 11:40

Where should I start with wireless robot-to-computer data transmission?

I'm working on a project where my bot collects some information while traversing a grid. I want to send the findings back to my computer wirelessly as the robot is moving. The range is not far (2-5 metres) and I am on a budget (Up to $20 but the lower the better).

The data I need to relay needs only be three sets of three single digit numbers. I could even condense it to be three 3 digit numbers or one 9 digit number I suppose.

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