Posts with «java» label

The Maven Box is an Arduino controller for software developers

Matthias Faust has created an Arduino controller for speeding up software development.

The “Maven Box” is based on an Uno and communicates with a Java program running on a desktop. The device is equipped with customizable buttons, switches and a dial, which act as physical inputs for expediting his daily routine. This enables Faust to select a branch from several GitHub projects, stash changes before pulling, pull the changes, trigger a maven build, as well as display the status of six tests on a set of notification LEDs.

Every job has it’s routine. I am a software developer who works with a Git/Maven based workspace everyday. So when I start working, my daily routine is to update and build my local workspace, pulling changes from GitHub, execute a maven build and execute the updated software. Usually I get my first coffee after that, but because I love coffee so much I thought there must be a faster way to get my system updated and running.

Whether a software developer yourself or simply a fan of awesome Arduino builds, check out the Maven Box’s Instructables page to see more!

Arduino Makerbeam Live Plotter Controlled By HTML5 Canvas and Java Website

We’ve never seen someone build a plotter out of buzzwords, but [roxen] did a really good job of it. The idea is simple, place the plotter over a sheet of paper, open a website, draw, and watch the plotter go. Check out the video below the break.

The user draws in an HTML5 Canvas object which is read by a Java Web Server. From there it gets converted to serial commands for an Arduino which controls the steppers with two EasyDrivers.

The build itself is really nice. It perfectly meets the mechanical requirements of a pen plotter without a lot of fluff. The overall frame is T-shaped, for the x- and y-axis. The movements are produced by two steppers and acetal rack and pinion sets. The pen is lifted up and down by a hobby servo.

We like the use of rubber end caps to hold the frame fixed with friction against the table and a single ball bearing to to contact the table in the direction of its movement. This has the added benefit of being a 3-point contact that automatically squares the assembly to the same plane the paper is in. Any twisting of the frame will have little effect on its drawing ability since it’s end-effector is a ballpoint pen.

We really enjoyed this project, and think it would be fun to play around with. You could hack it to take text input, and output the handwriting you would have if you were replaced by a unconvincing robot copy of yourself.

Thanks for the tip [Daniel R.]!

Filed under: robots hacks
Hack a Day 04 Mar 21:00

Talk To The (Robotic) Hand

Robotic hacker [Andrea Trufini] apparently likes choices. Not only does his robotic arm have six degrees of freedom, but it has a variety of ways he can control it. The arm’s software can accept commands through a programming language, via potentiometers, an infrared remote, or–the really interesting part–through spoken commands.

The videos don’t show too much of the build detail, but the arm is mainly constructed of laser cut plywood and uses an Arduino. Hopefully, we’ll see more particulars about the build soon but for now have a look at a similar project.

The software (myrobotlab) is on github and looks very impressive. The Java-based framework has a service-oriented architecture, with modules that support common processors (like the Arduino, Raspberry Pi, and Beagle Board) along with I/O devices (like motors, sound devices, and that Leap Motion controller you just had to buy). As you might expect from the demonstration found below, there are speech to text and text to speech services, too. Like a lot of open source projects, some of these services are more ready for prime time than others but that just means you can contribute your hacks back to the project.

You could build some pretty powerful robots with a framework like this. How powerful? One of the services knows how to play chess.

Filed under: Arduino Hacks, robots hacks

Home Automation with a Custom Wireless Sensor Network

We’re no strangers to home automation projects around here, but it’s not often that you see one described in this much detail. [Paul] designed a custom home automation system with four teammates for an undergraduate thesis project.

The system is broken into two main components; the server and the peripherals. The team designed their peripherals from early prototypes of an upcoming ArduIMU v4 measurement unit. They removed all of the default sensors to keep costs down and reduce assembly time. The units can them be hooked up to various peripherals such as temperature sensors, mains relays, RGB color strips, etc.

The central management of the system is performed using a web-based user interface. The web server runs on Java, and interacts with the peripherals wirelessly. Basic messages can be sent back and forth to either read the state of the peripherals or to change the state. As far as the user is concerned, these messages appear as simple triggers and actions. This makes it very simple to program the peripherals using if, then, else logic.

The main project page is a very brief summary of what appears to be a very well documented project. The team has made available their 182 page final report (pdf), which goes into the nitty-gritty details of the project. Also, be sure to watch the demonstration video below.

Filed under: home hacks

Review – pcDuino v2


Updated 29/01/2014 All pcDuino v2 tutorials

Update! The pcDuino version 3 is now available

In the last twelve months or so several somewhat inexpensive single-board computers have burst onto the market, and of those was the pcDuino. This has now evolved into the pcDuino v2,  the topic of our review. The pcDuino v2 is billed as the “mini PC + Arduino”, a combination with much promise. Out of the box it runs a version of Ubuntu 12.04 on Linaro 12.07, or can also run Android Ice Cream Sandwich if so desired.

The pcDuino v2 is a single-board computer like many others, however with some interesting additions – the most interesting being the Arduino-shield hardware connections and pcDuino v2 Arduino development environment. We’ll first run through the pcDuino v2 as a Linux computer, and then delve into the Arduino-compatibility. But first, our test board… which arrived safely in a neat box:

… which contains the pcDuino v2 itself:

At first glance you can see the various points of interest, such as the Allwinner A10, which is a 1GHz ARM Cortex A8 CPU:

… the Realtek WiFi add-on board (which is fitted to the pcDuino v2):

… and also a USB socket (for keyboard, mouse, USB hub and so on), a microUSB for USB OTG use, a full-sized HDMI socket for full HD video, RJ45 Ethernet socket,  a microSD socket for expansion, and the Hynix flash memory ICs. From the pcDuino v2 website, the specifications are:


  • CPU – 1GHz ARM Cortex A8
  • GPU – OpenGL ES2.0, OpenVG 1.1 Mali 400 core
  • DRAM – 1GB
  • Onboard Storage – 2GB Flash, microSD card (TF) slot for up to 32GB
  • Video Output – HDMI
  • OS – Linux3.0 + Ubuntu 12.04/Android ICS 4.0
  • Extension Interface Arduino Headers
  • Network interface – 10/100Mbps RJ45 and on-board WiFi module
  • USB Host port 1
  • Requires – Power 5V, 2000mA
  • Overall Size 125mm X 52mm


  • OS – Ubuntu 12.04 (pre-loaded) or Android ICS 4.0
  • APIs – all the Arduino shield pins are accessible with the provided API. 

    It consists of API to access the following interfaces: UART, ADC, PWM, GPIO, I2C, SPI

  • Programming language support – C, C++ with GNU tool chain, Java with standard Android SDK, Python. 

However at the time of writing all models with the date stamp of 17/09/2013 (and newer) have 4G of onboard flash storage – a great little bonus. With the addition of an inexpensive microSD card you can add up to an additional 32 G of storage.

Getting Started

This is the crunch-point for many products – how does one get started? With the pcDuino – very easily. Apart from the computer itself, you’ll need a monitor with HDMI inputs and speakers, a USB keyboard and mouse (with a USB hub – or one of those keyboard/trackpad combinations) and a power supply. The pcDuino v2 requires up to 2A at 5V – a higher-rated plugpack than usual. Don’t be tempted to use a normal USB socket – the pcDuino v2 will not work properly on the available current.

So after plugging all that in with the power the last to connect – the pcDuino v2 fires up in around five seconds, quickly running through the Ubuntu startup process and ended with the configuration screen in around five seconds:

After setting the time zone, language, screen resolution (full HD) and so on it was another ten seconds to the desktop:

At this point we found by accident that the A10 CPU runs hot – in some warmer permanent installations it could use a heatsink. But I digress. We now have a “normal” computer experience – the WiFi found the home network without any issue and the Chromium web browser runs well considering the speed and the RAM (1G) of the pcDuino v2:

The next step is to format the extra onboard storage, which can be done with the usual tool:

We just formatted it to ext4 and moved on. The included software is nothing unexpected, there’s the Chromium web browser, office-style applications, terminal, XBMC, remote-desktop viewer and of course you can hit up the Ubuntu package manager and install what you need.

It’s easy to get carried away and forget you’re not using a typical multi-GHz computer so bear that in mind when software runs a little slower than expected. However working with WordPress and Google Docs inside Chromium was acceptable, and a fair amount of this review was written using the pcDuino v2.

Excluding the Arduino development environment which we look at in the next section, pre-installed programming tools include Python (v2.7), C/C++ with GNU tool chain and Java with the standard Android SDK. At this point we haven’t tried the pcDuino with the Android operating system, however plan to do so in the near future and this will be the subject of a separate article.

At this point we’d say that the pcDuino v2 is a winner in the SBC (single-board computer) stakes, as you don’t need to worry about external WiFi, or deliberating about which version of an OS to use and then having to download it to an SD card and so on… the pcDuino v2 just works as a computer out of the box.

The pcDuino v2 as an Arduino

At this point we’d like to note that the pcDuino v2 is not an Arduino circuit wired up to a computer (such as the Arduino team did with the Yun). Instead, the pcDuino v2 is a computer that can emulate an Arduino – and has the GPIO pins and shield sockets onboard.

So when you run a sketch on the pcDuino v2’s version of the Arduino IDE – the sketch is compiled and then executed using the CPU, not an ATmega microcontroller. Speaking of which, the IDE is a modified version of 1.5.3 which appears identical to the usual IDE:

In fact when you compile and upload that blink.ino sketch everything runs as normal, and a small LED situated near D2/3 will blink as normal. However you do need to use more #include statements, for example #include <core.h> for all sketches. When uploading a sketch, a new window appears that will be blank, as shown below – this window needs to stay open otherwise the sketch won’t run

One of the benefits of using the pcDuino v2 is the extra space available for sketches – a quick compile shows that you can have a fair bit more than your typical ATmega328 – in our example we had 104,857,600 bytes available:

We don’t have a sketch that large, but at least you have some headroom to create them if necessary.

Arduino Hardware support

The shield header sockets are in the standard R3 configuration – and all GPIO is 3.3V and not 5V tolerant. However there is a conversion shield available if necessary. There are also some extra GPIO pins available – another eight, as shown in the following image:

At the time of writing there is support for GPIO use, SPI (up to 12 MHz, master-only), I2C (up to 200 kHz, at 7-bit and master-only), a UART (serial on D0/D1), PWM and ADC on A0~5.

However ADC is a little different, due to the internal reference voltages of the Allwinner CPU. Take note of the following as if you exceed the maximum voltages you could damage your board. Pins A0 and A1 are 6-bit ADCs, which return values from 0 ~ 63, which range from 0V to 2V. Pins A2~A5 are 12-bit ADCs, which return values  from 0 ~ 4095, which range across the full 0V to 3.3V.

There isn’t access to the usual serial monitor in the Arduino IDE as such, instead you need to use an external, hardware-based solution such as connecting a USB-serial adaptor to pins D0/D1 and using another PC as the terminal. And when you press ‘reset’ on your Arduino shields – it resets the entire computer, just not the Arduino emulation – (learned that the hard way!).

However you can output text and data to the console window that appears after uploading a sketch – and doing so is pretty easy, just use prinf as you would in C or C++. For example, the following sketch:

#include <core.h>

// example code from

void setup() {
  // put your setup code here, to run once:


void loop() 
   printf ("Characters: %c %c \n", 'a', 65);
   printf ("Decimals: %d %ld\n", 1977, 650000L);
   printf ("Preceding with blanks: %10d \n", 1977);
   printf ("Preceding with zeros: %010d \n", 1977);
   printf ("Some different radices: %d %x %o %#x %#o \n", 100, 100, 100, 100, 100);
   printf ("floats: %4.2f %+.0e %E \n", 3.1416, 3.1416, 3.1416);
   printf ("Width trick: %*d \n", 5, 10);
   printf ("%s \n", "A string");

produces the following output in the console window:

It would be recommended to read this guide about using the pcDuino v2 as an Arduino which highlights pretty well everything to get you started, including the notes on interrupts and PWM – and this page which explains the headers on the pcDuino v2. Finally, as the “Arduino” is emulated you cannot use the on-board networking capabilities of the pcDuino v2 such as Ethernet, instead you use a shield as you would with a normal Arduino.

At first glance it may seem that the pcDuino v2 is difficult, which it is not. One needs instead to consider their needs and then work with the available features. Just like many other new development boards and systems, the pcDuino v2 (and pcDuino platform) is still quite new – but growing – so more features and compatibility will appear over time.

How much faster is the pcDuino v2 against a normal Arduino board?

There should be a great difference between the Arduino’s microcontroller and the A10 CPU, even taking into account running the OS and emulation. To test this, we’ll use a sketch written by Steve Curd from the Arduino forum. It calculates Newton Approximation for pi using an infinite series. The pcDuino v2 version of the sketch is below:

// Pi_2
// Steve Curd
// December 2012
// This program approximates pi utilizing the Newton's approximation.  It quickly
// converges on the first 5-6 digits of precision, but converges verrrry slowly
// after that.  For example, it takes over a million iterations to get to 7-8
// significant digits.
// I wrote this to evaluate the performance difference between the 8-bit Arduino Mega,
// and the 32-bit Arduino Due.

#include <core.h> // for pcDuino v2
#include "Serial.h"

#define ITERATIONS 100000L    // number of iterations
#define FLASH 1000            // blink LED every 1000 iterations

void setup() {
  pinMode(13, OUTPUT);        // set the LED up to blink every 1000 iterations

void loop() {

  unsigned long start, time;
  unsigned long niter=ITERATIONS;
  int LEDcounter = 0;
  boolean alternate = false;
  unsigned long i, count=0;
  float x = 1.0;
  float temp, pi=1.0;

  Serial.print("Beginning ");
  Serial.println(" iterations...");

  start = millis();  
  for ( i = 2; i < niter; i++) {
    x *= -1.0;
    pi += x / (2.0f*(float)i-1.0f);
    if (LEDcounter++ > FLASH) {
      LEDcounter = 0;
      if (alternate) {
        digitalWrite(13, HIGH);
        alternate = false;
      } else {
        digitalWrite(13, LOW);
        alternate = true;
      temp = 40000000.0 * pi;
  time = millis() - start;

  pi = pi * 4.0;

  Serial.print("# of trials = ");
  Serial.print("Estimate of pi = ");
  Serial.println(pi, 10);

  Serial.print("Time: "); Serial.print(time); Serial.println(" ms");


As mentioned earlier, you can’t see the IDE serial monitor, so an external PC needs to be used. We connected a USB-serial adaptor running at 3.3V I/O to a PC:

Now back to the sketch. An Arduino Mega 2560 can do the calculation in 5765 ms, a Due 690 ms, and the fastest I saw the emulated Arduino in the pcDuino v2 do it was 9 ms:

Wow, that’s quick. However take note that the completion time was all over the place. When it was 9ms, the only application open was the pcDuino v2 Arduino IDE. The completion time increased when opening other applications such as Chromium, formatting a microSD card and so on.

Why is that? As the pcDuino v2 is emulating an Arduino, the CPU needs clock cycles to take care of that and all the other OS tasks – whereas a straight Arduino just runs the code generated by the IDE and compiler. Nevertheless the speed increase is welcome, and opens up all sorts of possibilities with regards to deeper calculations in sketches they may taken too long on existing hardware.

Support and Community

From what I can tell there is a growing base of users (including this one) and like everything else this will help the pcDuino platform develop and evolve over time. There is a Linksprite “Learning Centre” with a growing pcDuino v2 section, the website, wiki, and support forum which are useful sources of information and discussion.

Conclusion – so far

The pcDuino v2 is a great mix of single-board computer and Arduino-compatible power. There is a small learning curve, however the performance gains are more than worth it. Another USB socket wouldn’t go astray, and the documentation and support will increase over time. However we really liked the fact it’s totally plug-and-play with the onboard storage, OS and WiFi.

And finally a plug for my own store – – offering a growing range and Australia’s best value for supported hobbyist electronics from adafruit, DFRobot, Freetronics, Seeed Studio and much more.

Have fun and keep checking into Why not follow things on twitterGoogle+, subscribe  for email updates or RSS using the links on the right-hand column, or join our forum – dedicated to the projects and related items on this website.

The post Review – pcDuino v2 appeared first on tronixstuff.

Tronixstuff 13 Jan 01:15

Review – “Ardublock” graphical programming for Arduino


After helping many people get started with the world of Arduino and electronics,  we still find a small percentage of people who are turned off by the concept of programming or have trouble breaking larger tasks into smaller ones with regards to writing algorithms for their code/sketch.

So after being introduced to a new graphical programming tool called “Ardublock“, we were excited about the possibilities wanted to share it with our readers. Ardublock provides a truly graphical and non-coding solution to controlling an Arduino, that is an open-source product and thus free to download and try for yourself.


Ardublock is a Java application that runs from inside the Arduino IDE, which can be downloaded from here. It’s only one file, that needs to be placed in a new folder in the Arduino IDE. The folder names must be the same as shown below:

Once you’ve copied the file, simply open the Arduino IDE and select Ardublock from the Tools menu:

From which point a new window appears – the Ardublock “development environment”:

 Using Ardublock

It’s quite simple – you simply select the required function from the menu on the left and drag it into the large area on the right. For a quick example where we blink the onboard LED on and off – watch the following video:


The following image is the screen capture of the program from the video:

As you can see the “blocks” just fit together, and parameters can be changed with the right mouse button. After a few moments experimenting with the Ardublock software you will have the hang of it in no time at all.

And thus you can demonstrate it to other people and show them how easy it is. And there is much more than just digital output controls, all the functions you’re used to including I2C, variables, constants, servos, tone and more are available.

The only technical thing you need to demonstrate is that the Arduino IDE needs to stay open in the background – as once you have finished creating your program, Ardublock creates the required real Arduino sketch back in the IDE and uploads it to the board.

This is also a neat function – the user can then compare their Ardublock program against the actual sketch, and hopefully after a short duration the user will have the confidence to move on with normal coding.


Ardublock provides a very simple method of controlling an Arduino, and makes a great starting point for teaching the coding-averse, very young people or the cognitively-challenged. It’s open source, integrates well with the official IDE and works as described – so give it a go.

And if you enjoyed this review, or want to introduce someone else to the interesting world of Arduino – check out my book (now in a third printing!) “Arduino Workshop” from No Starch Press.

In the meanwhile have fun and keep checking into Why not follow things on twitterGoogle+, subscribe  for email updates or RSS using the links on the right-hand column? And join our friendly Google Group – dedicated to the projects and related items on this website. Sign up – it’s free, helpful to each other –  and we can all learn something.

The post Review – “Ardublock” graphical programming for Arduino appeared first on tronixstuff.

iPacemaker with Arduino

When we say “there are no limit for  Arduino”, here we have a project,  sent by [ladvine] in wich Arduino meets biomedic tech. The WiFi shield is the real application when they speak about Arduino. There is a long paper about it on this [website] that I suggest to visit to understand more this important project.

iPacemaker is an reprogrammable implant pacemaker with wireless connectivity.
A user friendly embedded web interface helps in changing every parameters of the implantable pacemaker. The important feature is the WiFi alliance complaint hardware which supports every wireless device to establish connection with the IMD. GSM connectivity can be used in absence of WiFi in remote areas helping in Telemetry.
Wireless protection in case of WiFi is enabled through WPA2 security with AES Encryption and Java Web interface which has inherent security capabilities. Shielding the GSM and WiFi antennas helps reduce unwanted patient radiations.

Arduino Blog 14 Dec 17:21

Mobiton - Robotic Smartphone Shell

Primary image

What does it do?

Uses a smartphone to operate. It can be an assistant, pet, or a telepresence device. Can be anything depends on the mobile app you write.

Hey Guys,

I know, I didn't post for a while. Didn't have time to post some of the projects, sorry about it.

Alright, so here is our new project, we plan to go commercial with it. It is called Mobiton. It is a robotic shell for mobile devices (android currently). You can dock your phone on the device, an application written for the robot pops up and it brings the robot to life.

Cost to build


Embedded video

Finished project



Time to build


URL to more information


read more


Primary image

What does it do?

This Legos robotic project uses JAVA sockets to communicate to an onboard Arduino which controls servomotors, LED's, and drive motors. It features a wireless IP Camera and was a lot of fun to build.

Cost to build


Embedded video

Finished project



Time to build

150 hours



URL to more information


Embedded programming gap

It seems that there is a shortage of programmers who can do embedded systems (which is what computer engineering is mostly about these days).

Critics lay much of the blame for the embedded programming gap at the doorstep of university computer science departments that have tended to migrate curricula toward trendy programming languages like Java at the expense of unglamorous tasks such as how to design and analyze algorithms and data structures.
Struggle continues to plug embedded programming gap | EE Times (by George Leopold)

I’m not so sure that Java is at fault here. It seems to me to be perfectly fine second programming language (after a simpler one like Python that does not require all data structures to be declared before any code is written).  The problem is more that the instruction focuses entirely on designing huge complex data structures and using large libraries of complex software components, rather than on fundamentals:

The problems start early in the curriculum. Too often an introductory Computer Science course will fall into one of two extremes: either focusing on the syntactic details of the programming language that is being used—“where the semicolons go”—or else treating programming as a matter of choosing components and plugging them into a GUI.

The basics—how to design and analyze algorithms and data structures—are covered summarily if at all. Software methodologies such as Object Orientation that are best approached in the context of the development life cycle for large applications, are introduced through trivial examples before their benefits can be appreciated: the proverbial cannon that is used to shoot a fly.

The education of embedded systems software engineers: failures and fixes | EE Times (by Robert Dewar)

I’m not so sure that I believe in Robert Dewar’s proposed solution, though, as he suggests having students do more high-level design (software architecture, rather than nuts-and-bolts programming), which is in direct opposition to his claim that students should be getting more training in low-level languages like C.

Robert Dewar also makes an argument for group work at the university level—something that is common in computer engineering programs, but apparently rare in computer science programs.  At UCSC, I know that all computer engineers, electrical engineers, and game design majors are expected to do group senior projects, and some of their other classes (such as mechatronics) are also group projects.

I think that the lack of group projects in many CS courses is not so much tied to Dewar’s idea “a perhaps regrettable staple of the educational process is the need to assess a student’s progress through a grade, and a team project makes this difficult” as it is to the problem of scale—a group project is only reasonable when the project is too big to be done more efficiently by a single person.  Creating and managing such big projects in lower-level classes would be a major undertaking, particularly in the short time frame of a quarter or semester, when a lot of things other than group dynamics need to be learned. Pasting a group structure onto tiny project would make things worse, not better, in terms of training students to be effective in groups (see Group work).

Some entrepreneurs have addressed the problem by starting up “initiatives like Barr’s week-long, hands-on Embedded Software Boot Camp.”  The idea is to take programmers who already have degrees and supposedly know C and train them specifically in the skills needed to do real-time programming. The cost is not small ($3000 for 4.5 days, if you register early).

Some computer scientists have been pointing out problems in the standard CS curriculum for a while:

I started saying this over a decade ago. I even did embedded stuff in my 3rd year data architecture course—my department was uninterested, and the students had a real hard time wrapping their heads around the thought that there are places where resources are limited.

The department fought me when I said that students needed to learn more than one language (Java). The department disagreed when I said that students should learn how to program for environments where bloated OO methods might not work (… But, the ARE no places where efficiency matters!!! It’s all about “Software Engineering”!).

The students had NO idea what it meant to program for a machine that had no disk, only memory.

Part of the reason CS departments are seen as being so out of touch is BECAUSE THEY ARE!!!

University should not be about job training, BUT it is also NOT about teaching only those things the faculty find interesting.

Struggle continues to plug embedded programming gap | The Becker Blog.

I know that there have been struggles between the computer science and computer engineering departments at UCSC about what programming language to teach first, with the computer scientists arguing for Java and the computer engineers arguing for C and assembly language.  Eventually they reached a compromise (which has been stable for about a decade), with the computer science students taught Java first and the computer engineering students taught C first, then both making transitions to the other language.

I think that both approaches work, but the strengths of the resulting programmers are somewhat different.  For device drivers and small embedded systems, I’d bet on the computer engineers, who have a better grasp of low-level details, interrupts, and hardware/software interactions.  For more complicated projects, I’d want one of the computer scientists doing the high-level programming, teamed with computer engineers to do the detail work.

I actually don’t like either C or Java as a first programming language.  I think that students would be better off starting with Scratch, which gets them quickly into multi-threaded code, real time operation, and race conditions, without burdening them with a lot of syntax.  Then they can switch to Python to learn about code syntax, types, and objects, without the burden (or support) of compile-time type checking.  After that they can switch to Java to learn about declaring all their data structures and having very rigid type rules (useful for bigger projects to make interfaces between different design groups more explicit).  In parallel with learning Python and Java, they should learn C and C++ in the context of the Arduino microprocessor (or similar small microprocessor) to control real-time physical systems.

The computer engineers could even skip Java, and learn their rigid type systems strictly in C++ (which they are more likely to use later), though Java is cleaner and makes the learning somewhat easier.

Computer scientists should not stop with this handful of languages, though, as they are essentially all Algol derivatives.  The CS students should also learn a couple of languages that come from different lineages (LISP or Haskell, for example).

Filed under: Uncategorized Tagged: Arduino, C++, computer science, education, higher education, Java, programming, Python, Scratch