Posts with «analogread» label

Get Arduino Data over the internet using jQuery and AJAX

Description

Have you ever wanted to transmit Arduino data over the internet?

In this tutorial, we will design a web page that will retrieve Analog readings from the Arduino's Analog Pins and display them on a bar chart within the web page.

The web page will use jQuery and AJAX to request the data from the Arduino Web Server, allowing us to update the bar chart dynamically, without having to refresh the entire web page. The Arduino Web Server will send the Analog readings to the web page in JSON format where it will be processed and displayed accordingly.

In this tutorial, I will not have anything connected to the Arduino's Analog pins, which means the data retrieved will be that of randomly floating analog pins. Feel free to connect a potentiometer, temperature sensor or any other analog sensor to these pins if you want to create a more "useful" project.

The main aim here was to show you how to transmit the data in JSON format, and to update only a portion of the web page using asynchronous communication (using AJAX), to improve the performance of data retrieval and visualisation.



Arduino Libraries and IDE

To program the Arduino you will need to download the Arduino IDE, and install the WIZnet Ethernet Library. The Arduino IDE version used in this tutorial was version 1.6.4.
You may want to read the WIZnet wiki information for each WIZnet shield before use.


 

ARDUINO CODE:

Full description of the Arduino code is included in the YouTube video above. Once you have set up your Arduino Web Server, you should be able to ping it. Look at this website, if you don't know how to use the windows ping feature.


Getting the Arduino Board onto the internet:

There isn't anything really to hook up for this project. You just have to align the pins for each board and stack them. You can power the Arduino via the USB cable. This will also be useful for debugging and printing to the Serial monitor. An ethernet cable needs to connect the WIZ550io board's ethernet port to your internet/network router

  • The WIZ550io board goes on the top

  • The ioShield-A is in the middle

  • The Arduino UNO is on the bottom

  • This is what it looks like when they are stacked together

  • If you want to gain easy access to the Analog or digital pins without de-soldering the ioShield-A, you can introduce some female headers like this:

  • Please note that the ioShield-A utilises a number of pins on the Arduino UNO - including: D2, D4, D7, D10, GND, and IOREF, RESET, 5V, GND, GND and ICSP pins
  • All Analog pins are available for use


 

Set the Arduino Web Server on your local network

You can test this project on your local network. You just have to choose an available IP address and PORT within your router's IP range. If you don't know your local IP address range - you can have a look at this site to give you a helping hand.


Set the Arduino Web Server to be accessed from anywhere in the world

If you want to access your Arduino from anywhere in the world, you need to set up Port Forwarding on your internet network router. The following useful guides will hopefully get you on the right track, if you have never set up Port forwarding.


In my case, I programmed the Arduino UNO Web Server to take the following ip address on my internal network: 10.1.1.99

I programmed the Arduino Web Server to listen for Web Browsers on port 8081.
So if I wanted to connect to the Arduino Web Server through my home network, I just had to type in this web address into my web browser: http://10.1.1.99:8081

If you plan to connect to the Arduino using port 80 (which is the default port for web browsers), you can just type the IP address without specifying the port (eg. http://10.1.1.99/ )

The web browser should display the Arduino data in JSON format (the YouTube video above will show you what that looks like).

Once I knew I could connect to the Arduino in my internal network, I then set up port forwarding on my router so that I could type in my external IP address and special port to tunnel my way into my Arduino Web Server on my internal network. This is what I had to do on my router, but you may need to do something different.

  1. My first step was to find out my public/external IP address by typing "what is my IP address" into google. If you want to know your external IP address click here.
  2. I then typed my router's ip address into a web browser, and logged into my router.
  3. I went to the advanced settings tab
  4. Selected "Port Forwarding" from the side menu
  5. Filled out all of the details on the first line of the Ports list
    • Enable box = ticked
    • Description = Arduino
    • WAN interface = pppoe_atm0/ppp0
    • Inbound port = 8082
    • Type = TCP
    • Private IP address = 10.1.1.99
    • Private port = 8081
  6. Saved the settings

Now that I had port forwarding enabled, I could type the ip address (that I obtained in step 1) into my browser and specified port 8082 (instead of 8081) - eg. http://190.11.70.253:8082/

And now I can access my Arduino Web server from anywhere in the world. I can even access it from my smart phone. Once again, this will only return the Analog data in JSON format.


The Web Page GUI

The Arduino is now on the internet, so there are two options. You can either

Instructions on how to use these web pages, are listed below the HTML code.



To retrieve data from your Arduino Web Server, please make sure that it is connected and visible from outside of you local network. You will need to have port forwarding enabled. Information on port forwarding is described above.

  1. Find what your external IP address is.
  2. Enter this address using the IP address drop-down boxes within the "ArduinoBasics Webserver Data viewer" web page
  3. Enter the port forwarding port number (eg. 8082) into the box labelled "Port"
  4. Then click on the "Click here to start getting data" button - you should start to see the bar charts moving and status should be OK
  5. If the bar charts do not move, and the status message says "Failed to get DATA!!" - then the web page was unable to connect to the Arduino for some reason.



Troubleshooting

  • You may want to type in the web address into your web browser, to make sure that data is being retrieved.
  • You can also open the Serial monitor in the Arduino IDE to make sure that an IP address is being displayed
  • Ensure that you have enabled the port forwarding option on your router
  • Have a look at Developer Tools within Google Chrome to help diagnose web page related issues.
  • The web page will not work properly if you use Internet Explorer or if you have javascript disabled within your browser.

Concluding comments

This tutorial showed you how to connect to your Arduino UNO over the internet, and retrieve data in JSON format using jQuery and AJAX. The web page can be modified to suit your own needs, plus it would be more useful if the Arduino was actually monitoring something, rather than logging data from floating pins. It would also be useful if the Arduino could be controlled to blink an LED, or to turn a motor... but I will leave that project for another day. I hope you enjoyed this tutorial - if it helped you in any way, please consider donating a small "tip" into my money jar. Thank you.


If you like this page, please do me a favour and show your appreciation :

 
Visit my ArduinoBasics Google + page.
Follow me on Twitter by looking for ScottC @ArduinoBasics.
I can also be found on Pinterest and Instagram.
Have a look at my videos on my YouTube channel.

             

This project would not have been possible without WIZnet's collaborative effort.
Please visit their site for more cool Ethernet products.



However, if you do not have a google profile...
Feel free to share this page with your friends in any way you see fit.

Arduino Tutorials – Chapter 22 – the AREF pin

Learn how to measure smaller voltages with greater accuracy using your Arduino.

This is chapter twenty-two of our huge Arduino tutorial seriesUpdated 12/12/2013

In this chapter we’ll look at how you can measure smaller voltages with greater accuracy using the analogue input pins on your Arduino or compatible board in conjunction with the AREF pin. However first we’ll do some revision to get you up to speed. Please read this post entirely before working with AREF the first time.

Revision

You may recall from the first few chapters in our tutorial series that we used the analogRead() function to measure the voltage of an electrical current from sensors and so on using one of the analogue input pins. The value returned from analogRead() would be between zero an 1023, with zero representing zero volts and 1023 representing the operating voltage of the Arduino board in use.

And when we say the operating voltage – this is the voltage available to the Arduino after the power supply circuitry. For example, if you have a typical Arduino Uno board and run it from the USB socket – sure, there is 5V available to the board from the USB socket on your computer or hub – but the voltage is reduced slightly as the current winds around the circuit to the microcontroller – or the USB source just isn’t up to scratch.

This can easily be demonstrated by connecting an Arduino Uno to USB and putting a multimeter set to measure voltage across the 5V and GND pins. Some boards will return as low as 4.8 V, some higher but still below 5V. So if you’re gunning for accuracy, power your board from an external power supply via the DC socket or Vin pin – such as 9V DC. Then after that goes through the power regulator circuit you’ll have a nice 5V, for example:

This is important as the accuracy of any analogRead() values will be affected by not having a true 5 V. If you don’t have any option, you can use some maths in your sketch to compensate for the drop in voltage. For example, if your voltage is 4.8V – the analogRead() range of 0~1023 will relate to 0~4.8V and not 0~5V. This may sound trivial, however if you’re using a sensor that returns a value as a voltage (e.g. the TMP36 temperature sensor) – the calculated value will be wrong. So in the interests of accuracy, use an external power supply.

Why does analogRead() return a value between 0 and 1023?

This is due to the resolution of the ADC. The resolution (for this article) is the degree to which something can be represented numerically. The higher the resolution, the greater accuracy with which something can be represented. We measure resolution in the terms of the number of bits of resolution.

For example, a 1-bit resolution would only allow two (two to the power of one) values – zero and one. A 2-bit resolution would allow four (two to the power of two) values – zero, one, two and three. If we tried to measure  a five volt range with a two-bit resolution, and the measured voltage was four volts, our ADC would return a numerical value of 3 – as four volts falls between 3.75 and 5V. It is easier to imagine this with the following image:

 So with our example ADC with 2-bit resolution, it can only represent the voltage with four possible resulting values. If the input voltage falls between 0 and 1.25, the ADC returns numerical 0; if the voltage falls between 1.25 and 2.5, the ADC returns a numerical value of 1. And so on. With our Arduino’s ADC range of 0~1023 – we have 1024 possible values – or 2 to the power of 10. So our Arduinos have an ADC with a 10-bit resolution.

So what is AREF? 

To cut a long story short, when your Arduino takes an analogue reading, it compares the voltage measured at the analogue pin being used against what is known as the reference voltage. In normal analogRead use, the reference voltage is the operating voltage of the board. For the more popular Arduino boards such as the Uno, Mega, Duemilanove and Leonardo/Yún boards, the operating voltage of 5V. If you have an Arduino Due board, the operating voltage is 3.3V. If you have something else – check the Arduino product page or ask your board supplier.

So if you have a reference voltage of 5V, each unit returned by analogRead() is valued at 0.00488 V. (This is calculated by dividing 1024 into 5V). What if we want to measure voltages between 0 and 2, or 0 and 4.6? How would the ADC know what is 100% of our voltage range?

And therein lies the reason for the AREF pin. AREF means Analogue REFerence. It allows us to feed the Arduino a reference voltage from an external power supply. For example, if we want to measure voltages with a maximum range of 3.3V, we would feed a nice smooth 3.3V into the AREF pin – perhaps from a voltage regulator IC. Then the each step of the ADC would represent around 3.22 millivolts (divide 1024 into 3.3).

Note that the lowest reference voltage you can have is 1.1V. There are two forms of AREF – internal and external, so let’s check them out.

External AREF

An external AREF is where you supply an external reference voltage to the Arduino board. This can come from a regulated power supply, or if you need 3.3V you can get it from the Arduino’s 3.3V pin. If you are using an external power supply, be sure to connect the GND to the Arduino’s GND pin. Or if you’re using the Arduno’s 3.3V source – just run a jumper from the 3.3V pin to the AREF pin.

To activate the external AREF, use the following in void setup():

analogReference(EXTERNAL); // use AREF for reference voltage

This sets the reference voltage to whatever you have connected to the AREF pin – which of course will have a voltage between 1.1V and the board’s operation voltage.

Very important note – when using an external voltage reference, you must set the analogue reference to EXTERNAL before using analogRead(). This will prevent you from shorting the active internal reference voltage and the AREF pin, which can damage the microcontroller on the board.

If necessary for your application, you can revert back to the board’s operating voltage for AREF (that is – back to normal) with the following:

analogReference(DEFAULT);

Now to demonstrate external AREF at work. Using a 3.3V AREF, the following sketch measures the voltage from A0 and displays the percentage of total AREF and the calculated voltage:

#include <LiquidCrystal.h>
LiquidCrystal lcd(8,9,4,5,6,7);

int analoginput = 0; // our analog pin
int analogamount = 0; // stores incoming value
float percentage = 0; // used to store our percentage value
float voltage =0; // used to store voltage value

void setup()
{
  lcd.begin(16, 2);
  analogReference(EXTERNAL); // use AREF for reference voltage
}

void loop()
{
  lcd.clear();
  analogamount=analogRead(analoginput);
  percentage=(analogamount/1024.00)*100;
  voltage=analogamount*3.222; // in millivolts
  lcd.setCursor(0,0);
  lcd.print("% of AREF: ");
  lcd.print(percentage,2);
  lcd.setCursor(0,1);  
  lcd.print("A0 (mV): ");
  lcd.println(voltage,2);
  delay(250);
}

The results of the sketch above are shown in the following video:

Internal AREF

The microcontrollers on our Arduino boards can also generate an internal reference voltage of 1.1V and we can use this for AREF work. Simply use the line:

analogReference(INTERNAL);

For Arduino Mega boards, use:

analogReference(INTERNAL1V1);

in void setup() and you’re off. If you have an Arduino Mega there is also a 2.56V reference voltage available which is activated with:

analogReference(INTERNAL2V56);

Finally – before settling on the results from your AREF pin, always calibrate the readings against a known good multimeter.

Conclusion

The AREF function gives you more flexibility with measuring analogue signals. If you are interested in using specific ADC components, we have tutorials on the ADS1110 16-bit ADC and the NXP PCF 8591 8-bit A/D and D/A IC.

Stay tuned for upcoming Arduino tutorials by subscribing to the blog, RSS feed (top-right), twitter or joining our Google Group. And if you enjoyed the tutorial, or want to introduce someone else to the interesting world of Arduino – check out my book (now in a third printing!) “Arduino Workshop” from No Starch Press.

 

The post Arduino Tutorials – Chapter 22 – the AREF pin appeared first on tronixstuff.